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GEOPHYSICAL DATA

In preparation for launching of the bid round, the Ministry of Energy and Water and the Lebanese Petroleum Administration (LPA) have assigned geophysical service companies to perform seismic surveys. These surveys have covered the entire Lebanese offshore and parts of the onshore.

ONSHORE
Seven wells have been drilled onshore between 1947 and 1967. Bitumen and gas shows had been observed. Further geophysical surveys will be performed by Spectrum and Neos Geosolutions in the near future in order to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity onshore. Spectrum will conduct a 2D seismic acquisition program up to 500 linear km with the objective of linking the offshore to the onshore and to better understand the geology in the vicinity of the drilled wells onshore. Neos Geosolutions typically works with multi-measurement interpretation (MMI) involving the integration of geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrophysical datasets. Typical geophysical measurements that will be performed using airborne acquisition surveying of large areas include magnetic, gravitational, radiometric and hyperspectral surveying. By the end of the year (Q4), a full comprehensive geophysical package will be available.


Airborne geophysical acquisition surveys are being undertaken by Neos Geosolutions in order to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity onshore. The survey will cover approximately 6000 km2 (pictured in the polygon to the right), of which 2000 km2 will cover the coast of Lebanon and 4000km2 onshore.
Neos will use two fixed-wing aircraft acquisition platforms outfitted with advanced sensors: one to perform Hyperspectral acquisition and the other to perform Magnetic, Electromagnetic, Radiometric and Gravitational (MERG) acquisition.

The hyperspectral survey began on Friday 3rd October, 2014 and it is being used to identify spectral signatures of direct and indirect indicators of hydrocarbons and minerals on the surface.
The second plane will arrive during the month of October, 2014. The MERG survey will merge magnetic, electromagnetic, gravitational and radiometric surveys.
Ground Magnetotelluric (MT) stations will be installed that will connect the airborne electromagnetic measurements with ground electromagnetic measurements to improve on measurement depths.

Neos Geosolutions typically works with Multi-Measurement interpretation (MMI) involving the integration of geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrophysical datasets including well logs, cores, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) seismic lines. Neos initially interprets each data set individually, followed by qualitative multi-measurement interpretation whereby several datasets will be interpreted in combination. Finally, Neos will apply a variety of geostatistical and predictive analytic techniques to quantitatively interpret all relevant geologic and geophysical measurements, attributes and derivatives.
The planned airborne acquisition surveys will provide an ability to connect the onshore geologic and geophysical data to the offshore data. This will be attained by incorporating onshore and offshore seismic data in the interpretation and integration of the transition zone along the coast of Lebanon providing vital insight into understanding the geology of Lebanon.


OFFSHORE
Multi-Client seismic data is available from Petroleum GeoServices (PGS) and Spectrum. The PGS Lebanese Multi-Client seismic data sets includes 3D seismic surveys covering 9,700 km² (2008-2011) and 9,700 linear km of 2D (2006-2012) seismic data. The PGS 2D program includes a GeoStreamer seismic program of 5,000 km. The Spectrum Lebanese Multi-Client seismic datasets includes 3D seismic surveys covering 5,360 km² (2012-2013) and 5,172 linear km of 2D (2000-2002) that have been recently reprocessed (both time and depth migrated products available). The Geco Prakla seismic dataset includes 2D seismic surveys covering 508 linear km off-Tripoli (1993). These surveys provide vital structural insight of the basin and include a detailed grid over Lebanese acreage. Further geophysical surveys will be performed by ION using advanced source, acquisition, and streamer steering technologies and is processed by GX Technology, to identify deeper targets from the surface to the basement. Inclusive in the study are source rock distribution, regional sediment fairways, migration pathways from source rock to reservoir with enhanced definition of faults and salt sheets.


DATA INTERPRETATION AND STUDIES
2D and 3D seismic data interpretation revealed interesting four way dip closure structures, considered as candidates for exploration, and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI). In addition, stratigraphic traps towards the margin had been identified as a result of reservoir characterization. The petroleum systems study (Basin Modeling) added to the understanding of the hydrocarbon maturity, migration pathways, trapping mechanism and types of source rocks. Furthermore, performing petroleum systems analysis (basin modeling), coupled with seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization demonstrated the prospectivity of offshore Lebanon. These studies model the presence of gas, condensates and oil.


Multi-Client geophysical data is available from:
Spectrum - www.spectrumasa.com
PGS - www.pgs.com
NEOS - www.neosgeo.com




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