Republic of Lebanon
Multi-Client seismic data is available from Petroleum GeoServices (PGS) and Spectrum.
The PGS Lebanese Multi-Client seismic data sets include 3D seismic surveys covering 9,700 km² and 9,700 linear km of 2D seismic data. The PGS 2D Multi-Client seismic data sets include a GeoStreamer seismic program of 5,000 km.
The Spectrum Lebanese Multi-Client seismic datasets includes 3D seismic surveys covering 5,360 km² and 2D seismic surveys covering 5,172 linear km that have been recently reprocessed (both time and depth migrated products are available).
The Geco Prakla seismic dataset includes 2D seismic surveys covering 508 linear km off-Tripoli (acquired in 1993). These surveys provide vital structural insight of the basin and include a detailed grid over Lebanese acreage.
An airborne geophysical acquisition survey was undertaken in order to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity onshore. The survey covered approximately 6000 km2, of which 2000 km2 covered the coast of Lebanon and 4000km2 onshore.
2D and 3D seismic data interpretation revealed interesting four way dip closure structures, considered as candidates for exploration, and Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators (DHI). In addition, stratigraphic traps towards the margin had been identified as a result of reservoir characterization.
The petroleum systems study (Basin Modeling) improved the understanding of the hydrocarbon maturity, migration pathways, trapping mechanism and types of source rocks. Furthermore, performing petroleum systems analysis (basin modeling), coupled with seismic interpretation and reservoir characterization demonstrated the prospectivity of offshore Lebanon. These studies model the presence of gas, condensates and oil.
A geological and geophysical study was performed in 2004 to determine the hydrocarbon potential offshore Lebanon.
The main scope of the study was a seismic interpretation using 2D seismic acquired data.
Geoscientific elements were identified including potential source intervals postulated from regionally defined fairways accompanied with maturity modeling indicating favorable timing of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons, speculative petroleum systems based on source rock and play type recognition, play/trap combinations as well as the types of hydrocarbons.
Deterministic and probabilistic volumetrics were conducted on mapped prospects and analysis of the geologic risks was performed. A total of 210 prospects and leads are identified from the horizon depth maps. An unrisked mean in-place reserves potential was calculated for eighty seven prospects exceeding 25 km2 in areal extent.
The study was completed in October 2011. The objective was to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity offshore Lebanon by interpreting and integrating 2D seismic profiles acquired and processed by Spectrum (2000 and 2002) and Petroleum Geo-Services (2008) covering 4750 km and 5000 km respectively.
An important result of the study based on the aforementioned 2D seismic data is the definition of numerous plays with favorable trap-reservoir-source rock combinations in the different geological domains as well the identification of many leads
Furthermore, the study allowed for the definition of seventeen (17) plays resulting from favorable trap-reservoir-source rock combinations in the different geological domains. On fifteen (15) of them it was possible to define forty (40) leads having more than 10 km2 closures
Petroleum systems modeling with testing of several scenarios was conducted in July 2012 using the acquired 2D seismic lines.
The results of the basin modeling improved the understanding of the petroleum systems offshore Lebanon and the conditions required for the generation of oil or gas and biogenic versus thermogenic gas.
The basin modeling aimed to estimate the average charge of the structures and to indicate the nature of fluids that are potentially trapped, ultimately improving the understanding of the petroleum systems potentially found offshore Lebanon.
The most prospective horizons as well as the most active petroleum systems were also identified.
The objective of the study was to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity offshore southern Lebanon. A major improvement achieved from this study was the possibility to delineate several typical Mesozoic rimmed carbonate platforms.
The most important improvement for future exploration concerns the imaging of the faulted and folded structures linked to a strike slip fault system along the continental margin. Several elongated anticlines with closures can be delineated which deform the stratigraphic layers. This allowed for the definition of 14 prospects and six plays of regional interest which is a positive element for exploration.
The modeling of the petroleum systems in offshore Lebanon realized in 2011 reinforces the potential resources of the prospects defined on the 3D southern survey area with good probability of gas presence. Potential direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHI) and flat spots are observed.
In late-2012, the geology and geophysics department performed an interpretation of the 3D seismic survey acquired in 2007 totaling 660 km2.
The objective of the study was to assess the hydrocarbon prospectivity offshore northern Lebanon by interpreting and characterizing the 3D seismic northern survey. The northern survey is located on a major tectonic boundary between the Levant basin subducting to the north below the Cyprus arc and therefore the geologic framework is different to other zones offshore Lebanon.
A reservoir characterization was performed at this location that incorporates all the characteristics of the reservoir with respect to its ability to store hydrocarbons and also produce them. For the seismic reservoir characterization purpose, a pre-stack inversion was realized. The results, used for reducing interpretation uncertainties, confirm the presence of gas and improve the net-to-gross estimate of the potential reservoirs. The key result of the study, based on the 3D survey interpretation, is the definition of 25 prospects grouped into 7 structures, because the individual prospects are superimposed vertically, which increase the attractiveness of the area.
In Late-2013, a 3D seismic interpretation and characterization study was performed on 3D seismic data acquired in 2006 and 2012 covering the central and north east, combined to a total of 4290 km2. The knowledge of the regional geological framework and the interpretation of the 3D profiles allowed defining the main geological characteristics of the surveyed area and the revision of the 2D seismic interpretation.
The key result of the study based on the 3D surveys interpretation, is the definition of 36 prospects grouped into 10 structures. For the seismic reservoir characterization, a pre-stack inversion was realized in the northern part of the survey. The results confirm the presence of gas in some stratigraphic traps
The petroleum systems modeling performed previously, combined with the seismic characterization performed in the northern area, show that in addition to the probable presence of biogenic gas in the upper reservoirs, the probability of getting thermogenic hydrocarbons increases with depth. Furthermore, the presence of condensates and oil is expected in the prospects located along the basin margin.
In early-2015, a 3D seismic interpretation study was performed with the objective of assessing the hydrocarbon prospectivity of western offshore and south-eastern margin of Lebanon by interpreting five 3D seismic surveys acquired by PGS and Spectrum in 2012 and 2013 totaling 8848 km2.
This study enables the surveyed area to be divided into three different prospective zones: the Lebanon western offshore (deep) Levant basin with three features that have important consequence on the definition of prospects in this domain and that have been better defined with the interpretation of the 3D; the Cyprus Arc Domain (northernmost western offshore) with the new 3D surveys covering the southern extension of structure previously identified from the 3D seismic interpretation of the northern survey and allowed for better understanding of the area; and the south eastern continental margin that had been better constrained with the 3D seismic interpretation.
The key result of the study is the definition of 45 prospects grouped into 17 structures, because the individual prospects are stacked vertically, which increases the attractiveness of the area. Eight (8) of them have an areal closure greater than 50 km2 and nineteen (19) of them have more than 25 km2 .
In mid-2015, an interpretation study was performed on the data acquired from the airborne geophysical survey that covered 6000 km2, of which 2000 km2 covered the coast of Lebanon and 4000 km2 onshore.
The data interpreted support the presence of significant potential for discovery of hydrocarbons, and identified six areas of interest onshore and three areas of interest on the margin area. Furthermore, a dual seismic/gravity and magnetic interpretation was performed along parts of the 2D lines acquired by Spectrum that intersects with the gravity survey acquired by Neos. Poor seismic coverage and imaging quality on the margin had affected previous petroleum assessment, specifically in terms of risk assessment.
The airborne geophysical and magnetic field data reduced uncertainties associated with risk assessment calculated in previous studies. The data supported the presence of significant potential for discovery of hydrocarbons in Lebanon in the Triassic. Triassic and Paleozoic thermal analysis indicated wet gas transitioning to dry gas probable with some liquids possible. It is reported that there are six onshore areas of interest covering 2461 km2 and three offshore areas of interest covering 742 km2.
The study looks at the Triassic Reservoir only, and concentrates on the study area. The goals of the static (in-place volumes) calculations and uncertainty study are to determine volumes of gas in place.
The objective was to better determine potential reservoir intervals by understanding the growth and evolution of the normal faults (effect of mechanical stratigraphy, evolution, timing and so forth) and to determine the origin of the NNE trending anticlines, how they grew and whether the normal faults impacted their growth and evolution. The results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis for the Oligo-Miocene faults in the Levant Basin offshore Lebanon show a strong correlation between the evolution of these faults and lithological properties of the host rock sequences.
It was shown that units with coarser sediments are affecting the geometry and distribution of the normal faults throughout the basin. By mapping the fault distribution and analyzing their displacement evolution, it was possible to map discrete units in the basin that are thought to affect their growth. These units are believed to be sand with good reservoir properties.