• Environmental Impact Assessment

    In fulfillment of the regulatory requirements and international best practices, the Right-Holder – Operator, TOTAL E&P Liban Sal (TEP), completed the environmental assessment process for block 4 according to the below listed milestones while the process is still ongoing for block 9.

    Screening phase:

    The EIA process was initiated in July 2018 through a project classification for the exploration activities planned in Block 4. The scope of the proposed project covered offshore activities and associated onshore support operations (supply base, vessels movement, helicopter transport, etc.) conducted for drilling one exploration well and a potential appraisal well and a contingent well in the event of a commercial discovery.

    Scoping phase:

    As an integral part of the EIA scoping process, the project proponent conducted a high-level assessment of the potential impacts of the planned exploration activities on the different environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors.

    The assessment addressed mainly environmental and social impacts (positive and negative) relevant to different phases or activities within the scope of the planned project to identify the main topics requiring thorough assessments and possible mitigation measures and management plans. The assessment was conducted based on:

    • Preliminary understanding of the policy, legal and administrative frameworks of the country;
    • Conceptual project design and initial description of operational phases; and
    • Preliminary understanding of the prevailing environmental and socio-economic baseline conditions and potential receptors affected by the project activities assessed based on available secondary data sources.


    Topics found of significance to be considered by the EIA covered adverse impacts of routine activities namely underwater noise, hazardous wastes, effluent discharges, marine ecology, etc. as well as accidental events namely oil spills, blowouts, fires and explosions.

    An interactive and proactive Stakeholder Engagement approach was adopted as part of the EIA Scoping phase. The approach adopted by the project proponent exceeded the national requirements and aligned with best international practice aiming at:

    • Raising awareness of the potentially affected and concerned population of the planned activities in Block 4;
    • Improving understanding of the baseline conditions;
    • Aligning the expectations and capture main concerns raised by potentially affected population to be addressed in the EIA study; and
    • Informing about the main findings of the scoping assessment and obtain validation of report;
    • Informing about the process and the scope of the EIA study.


    They key tasks achieved during that exercise included:

    • Making the draft scoping report publicly available online for commenting for 1 month in May 2019. During that period, more than 40 comments have been received on the report from NGOs.
    • Conducting workshops targeting NGOs, international organizations, fisherman, syndicates and associations potentially affected by the proposed project;
    • Conducting an “Open House” Public participation meeting held at the Radisson Hotel – Beirut on the 24th of May 2019 and targeting the general public and representatives from public institutions;


    Information collected during the stakeholder engagement activities were considered during the scoping process.

    The final output of the scoping phase materialized in the development of the terms of reference (ToR) of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study outlining the tasks and methodologies to be adopted to develop the EIA report and complete the EIA process for the Block 4 exploration drilling activities.

    Environmental and Social Baseline Surveys:

    One of the major outcomes of the scoping phase consisted of developing the scope of work for the Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) conducted specifically for the purpose of the project planned in Block 4. A thorough EBS campaign was conducted from March to April 2019 by a specialized scientific vessel – Janus II taking samples and video recordings from deep-waters with depths varying between 320 to 1,780 meters below sea level which is a “first time” for such types of surveys in Lebanon.

    The survey aimed at identifying environmentally and archeologically sensitive areas offshore and to identify and characterize existing marine conditions (physical, chemical and biological). The EBS campaign focused mainly on evaluating:

    • Water column quality and richness and diversity of planktonic population;
    • Sediment composition, enrichment and potential chemical contamination;
    • The structure and composition of the benthic strand;
    • The presence and diversity of marine megafauna (marine mammals, sea turtles and birds); and
    • The importance of maritime traffic.


    Key findings of the survey are summarized below:

    Parameter Conclusion
    Water column Clear, oligotrophic and uncontaminated marine waters (low metal, PAHs, PCBs and BTEX concentrations)
    Plankton communities Low diversity and abundance of plankton
    Sediment Compartment - Low organic and nutrient enrichment
    - No noticeable traces of contamination in metals, except for arsenic, copper, and nickel which are considered as of natural origin
    - Low concentrations of hydrocarbons, BTEX and PCBs
    Benthic infauna Low diversity, abundance, and biomass
     ROV observations  Low diversity and abundance of epibenthic species colonizing the soft bottom
     MFO observations - Very low sighting rates for marine mammals and large pelagic fish
    -  No sighting for turtles
    -  High occurrence and diversity of birds which are migrating along the Lebanon coast
     Archeology  No archeological trace of remains on the deep seabed
     Maritime Traffic - Abundant anthropogenic activity with many vessels
    - Abundant waste floating on the sea surface or on the seafloor

    A Social Baseline Survey (SBS) was also conducted during the scoping stage. The survey aimed at better understanding, before operational activities, the societal and human rights context of the directly and indirectly affected area by the planned activities in Block 4.

    Click here to download the Environmental Baseline Survey brochure.

    EIA Reporting Stage:

    An EIA report was developed based on the approved TOR during the scoping phase. The report presented a detailed assessment and evaluation of impacts identified during the scoping to define the associated significance (magnitude, duration, likelihood of occurrence, etc.). It further allowed detailed evaluation of alternative options as well as the development of project specific environmental management and monitoring plans.

    The objectives of this phase of the EIA process are to:

    • Fully understand the legal and regulatory requirements and guidelines relevant to the project;
    • Identify sensitive environmental, socio-economic and cultural heritage receptors in the project area of influence;
    • Inform and actively engage stakeholders (potentially affected communities/people and other interested parties);
    • Further detail project aspects and activities that could result in environmental, socio-economic or cultural heritage impacts along with scoping or impact significance;
    • Determine residual project impacts, along with scoring of residual impact significance; and
    • Ensure that mitigation measures are incorporated into management plans to be implemented by the project proponent, its contractors and subcontractors during the project design and implementation phases.

    Potential impacts were assessed throughout the lifecycle of the project based on a comprehensive, systematic review and scoring methodology. Modeling was also conducted during the assessment including discharge/cuttings modeling, oil spill modeling and underwater noise modeling.

    Based on this assessment, it was concluded that by following Lebanese legislative requirements and adopting Total’s international best practices, the residual impacts from routine activities are expected to have minor or negligible levels of significance. Some residual impacts of moderate significance is unavoidable from the discharge of water-based cuttings and drilling fluids at the seabed during drilling of the upper well (open hole) sections. However, control measures were developed as part of the EIA study to mitigate this issue to the practical level. The potential impacts of discharge of hazardous wastes (polluted oily cuttings) was avoided by adopting the option to export the waste for treatment outside Lebanon in line with Basel Convention.

    A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of potential unplanned/accidental events was also carried out as part of the EIA study. Different scenarios of accidental events that may occur during operation were evaluated. Spill drift modelling of two large-scale hydrocarbon releases (well blowout with release of condensate and an instantaneous release of a large volume of marine gas oil (vessel fuel)) has been conducted as part of the EIA study and associated control measures were integrated within the project’s mitigation measures.

    A register of commitments was developed listing all the adopted mitigation measures to be followed during the process. In addition, Environmental and Social Management and Monitoring Plans have been developed which covered mainly the below listed topics:

    • Waste Management Plan;
    • Chemical Management Plan;
    • Pollution Prevention Plan;
    • Oil spill Contingency Plan; and
    • Social Management Plan.


    The Environmental and Social Management Plans will form the framework for subsequent implementation plans to be implemented by the different contractors and subcontractors involved in the project to ensure compliance with the relevant environmental and social requirements, specifications and procedures set out.

    The interactive and proactive Stakeholder Engagement approach was maintained during the EIA reporting phase where:

    • The draft EIA report was made publicly available online for commenting for 1 month in September 2019.
    • Two “Open House” public participation meetings were held in Beirut and Byblos on the 19th and 20th of September 2019 respectively and targeting the general public, representatives from public institutions, and others.

    Information collected during the stakeholder engagement activities were considered during the EIA reporting phase.

    Environmental Impact Assessment for the Exploration Activities in Block 4:

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study for the Exploration Drilling in Block 4 Offshore Lebanon can be accessed here:

    1 - ESIA Block 4 - Approval Letter

    2 - Block 4 Exploration EIA - Executive Summary - Arabic

    3 - Block 4 Exploration EIA - Executive Summary - English

    4 - Block 4 Exploration EIA - Full report

    5 - Block 4 Exploration EIA - Appendices

    6 - Block 4 Commitments Register

    7 - B4 Management Plans - Vol 2A

    8 - B4 Management Plans - Vol 2B







  • HSE Risk Assessment and Management System

    Risk analysis was undertaken by the Operator to address all risks associated with petroleum activities planned for Block 4. The risk analysis included risks associated with the drilling activities where a Risk Register and Bow-Tie analysis were undertaken to identify hazards and risks, define major accident hazards, develop the proper mitigation measures, assign responsibilities to follow up and manage the hazard/risk, and maintain an updated Risk Register.

    The risk analysis also included risks associated with the drillship where an IADC HSE Case was put in place in line with the IADC Guidelines for Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit. The IADC Case includes the assessment of the management system of the drill ship, the the evaluation of the drillship technical specifications and performance and the assessment of the associated hazards and risks as well as the measure put place to manage these risks.

    The Operator has established and has implemented a Management System covering the planned exploration activities in line with best international practices followed in the industry.

  • Emergency Response Framework of TOTAL E&P Liban

    An Emergency Response Plan (ERP) for exploration activities in Block 4 was put in place by the Operator before the commencement of drilling activities in Block 4, in line with the requirements in the petroleum regulations.

    The ERP targets the emergency preparedness and response by the Operator during the planned petroleum activities and defines the overall response organization for emergency management at the Operator under multiple emergency scenarios as well as the emergency procedures and arrangements to ensure proper, timely and effective response to any emergency. The ERP also defines notification, communication and reporting channels during emergencies namely the interfaces with the relevant government institutions. The ERP clearly defines the Operator as the responsible entity to identify and quantify the risks of emergencies, define the main emergency scenarios, prepare, plan and respond to these emergency scenarios, as well as arrange and ensure the resources for the proper and timely management of emergencies.

    While the ERP presents the framework plan for all emergency scenarios, additional plans were developed for the specific emergency scenarios of Medical Evacuation, Oil Spill and Blowout as described below.

    Medevac Plan:

    A Medevac Plan was put in place by the Operator in line with the petroleum regulations to manage emergencies related to medical conditions that require transfer from the offshore/logistic base to hospitals onshore. The Medevac Plan addresses medical cases of illnesses and diseases as well as injuries resulting from incidents/accidents. The Medevac plan defines the responsibilities, organization and resources available as well as the procedures and arrangements to ensure proper, timely and effective evacuation of medical cases. The Medevac also defines notification, communication and reporting channels among the different relevant parties.


    An Oil Spill Contingency Plan (OSCP) was put in place by the Operator, in line with the petroleum regulations, to manage and respond to potential scenarios of oil spills and releases of hydrocarbon in the environment at sea, and onshore, related to the offshore petroleum activities (drilling operations and logistical support). The OSCP defines the overall response organization for oil spill management at the Operator as well as the response procedures and arrangements to ensure proper, timely and effective response to any oil spill case. The OSCP also defines notification, communication and reporting channels during oil spill scenarios.


    A Blow Out Contingency Plan (BOCP) specific to the activities planned in Block 4 was put in place by the Operator, in line with the petroleum regulations. The BOCP focuses on regaining well control, ensuring recovery from loss of control of the well as well as minimization of the impact on health of the personnel and the environment. The BOCP defines the response organization at the Operator as well as the measures and procedures to manage well control situations to avoid blowout situations. The BOCP also defines the strategies and guidance towards response and management of blowout situations. The BOCP describes procedures for possible relief well and subsea intervention capping scenarios as the main potential interventions in cases of blowouts.

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